Overview of Cement Production

featured image courtesy of rigzone.

Portland cement is a fine powder gray or white in color, that consist of a mixture of hydraulic cement materials comprising primarily of calcium silicates, aluminates and alumino ferrites, more than 30 raw materials are known to be used in the manufacture of Portland cement and these materials can be divided into four distinct categories: calcareous, siliceous, argillaceous and ferriferous.

These materials are chemically combined through by processing and subjected to subsequent mechanical processing operation to form gray and white Portland cement. 

White Portland cement has lower iron and manganese content than grey Portland cement and it’s used primarily for decorative purposes

Portland cement manufacturing plants are part of of hydraulic cement manufacturing which also include natural, masonry and pozzolanic cement, the six digit source classification  code (SCC) for Portland wet process wet process kilns is 3-05-006 and the six digit classification code for plants with dry process kiln is 3-05-007

The Manufacture Process of Portland cement

Cement is manufactured in two major ways

1.       The wet process

2.       The dry process

The two processes is essentially the same except that in the wet process, the raw materials are grounded with water before being fed into the kiln.

Dry Process:

These materials are mined directly, dry materials are clean of any water after it is grounded and mixed thoroughly in the correct proportion.

The mixture is fed into the rotary kiln from the upper end at a uniform rate heated to a temperature ranging from 1427 to 1530 degree Celsius, the rotary kiln is attached at an angle that makes it sloppy such that materials fed into it from the upper end travels gradually to the lower end of the cylindrical kiln, heating, heating is coal powered. Fuel oil can also be used. When heated to the working temperature stated above, chemical reaction is initiated between the ingredients of the mixture. The first material formed is known as clinker, the clinker is ground with a controlled amount of gypsum and the final product is known as Portland cement

Wet Process

Wet process differs from dry process in that water is introduced into the raw material but (calcium compound) it has the same process as dry cement production.

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